why are continental margins more biologically productive than the open ocean


Why Are Continental Margins More Biologically Productive Than The Open Ocean?

Why are continental margins more biologically productive than the open ocean? There are more available nutrients along the continental margins. In temperate oceans of the northern hemisphere during the winter months: Nutrient concentrations are high, solar input is low, and water temperatures decrease.

Why is the open ocean least productive?

In surface waters away from coastlines, generally there is plenty of sun but not enough nutrients. So most of the ocean surface is not very productive. The water is too deep for storms to stir up nutrients from the bottom and there isn’t upwelling.

Why the open ocean is only biologically productive near the surface of the water?

Because of the density difference between surface water and the deep sea across most of the ocean, ocean circulation can only very slowly reintroduce dissolved nutrients to the euphotic zone. By driving nutrients out of the sunlit, buoyant surface waters, ocean productivity effectively limits itself.

Why are margins of the ocean most productive?

In general, rates of biological productivity along continental margins are significantly higher than in the open ocean. This is due to a variety of factors including coastal upwelling of nutrient-rich waters and nutrient input from continental runoff.

What part of the ocean is the most productive biologically?

coastal upwelling
Although they occupy less than two percent of the oceans, the coastal upwelling areas in the eastern parts of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean are among the biologically most productive marine areas worldwide.Jan 7, 2019

Is productivity higher on the land or in the sea?

(1) estimate that there is roughly 80 times more biomass on land than in the oceans. … The lower productivity of the ocean per unit area is due largely to poorer light penetration in water (2).

Why are coastal areas more productive than the open ocean?

Coastal waters are more productive than the central ocean for two main reasons. First, runoff from land often contains a high abundance of nutrients which get deposited in coastal waters and stimulate production.

Why is productivity low in tropical regions quizlet?

Biological productivity is low in tropical regions because the strong thermocline prevents the mixing of waters and movement of nutrients. … Temperate regions have much higher productivity levels, but the productivity is not constant year round.

What does it mean to be biologically productive?

Definition of Biological productivity:

The quantity of organic matter or its equivalent in dry matter, carbon, or energy content which is accumulated during a given period of time.

What is the most productive part of continental margin?

The continental shelf
The continental shelf is the most economically valuable part of the ocean. It often is the most productive portion of the continental margin, as well as the most studied portion, due to its relatively shallow, accessible depths.

Where are oceans the most productive quizlet?

In the polar oceans, phytoplankton blooms (explosive population growth) occur during the summer months as a result of favorable light conditions which lead to short-term increased primary productivity. During these months, the Antarctic Ocean’s upwelling zone exhibits some of the Earth’s highest primary productivity.

Why are cold oceans more productive?

Where phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. Because cold waters tend to have more nutrients than warm waters, phytoplankton tend to be more plentiful where waters ware cold.

What is the most productive marine environments and why are they so productive?

Upwelling. The most productive waters of the world are in regions of upwelling. Upwelling in coastal waters brings nutrients toward the surface. Phytoplankton reproduce rapidly in these conditions, and grazing zooplankton also multiply and provide abundant food supplies for nekton.

Why are the most productive marine ecosystems found in cold temperate regions?

why are the most productive marine ecosystems found in cold, temperature regions? they have less overall sunlight, but receive far more nutrients.

What factors affect productivity in the ocean?

Ocean Productivity. Abiotic factors like solar radiation and nutrients, and biotic factors like zooplankton predation may affect ocean primary productivity. Productivity varies with the season, and also locally and globally.

Which zone of the ocean is the most productive?

The uppermost zone, from the sea surface to a depth of 200 m (656 ft), is called the epipelagic or photic zone. The large amount of available sunlight makes this the most productive zone of the ocean.

Why do coastal regions tend to have more primary productivity?

Why does coastal upwelling lead to high biological productivity? It provides a current for fish to move up in the water column to devour the phytoplankton on the surface. It brings warm, nutrient-rich water to the surface, where phytoplankton reside.

Why is the California coast so biologically productive?

The waters along the west coast of North America are some of the most biologically productive in the world. … The combination of cool water and abundant nutrients promotes the growth of plant life in the sea, from microscopic phytoplankton to dense kelp forests.

Why is biological productivity relatively low in the tropical open ocean?

Why is biological productivity relatively low in the tropical open ocean, where the penetration of sunlight is greatest? Biological productivity is low where penetration of sunlight is greatest because low concentration of nutrients and warmer temperatures. You just studied 41 terms!

Why is the productivity in tropical oceans uniformly low year round?

Why is the productivity in tropical oceans uniformly low year-round? The main limiting productivity factor in tropical oceans is the availability of nutrients.

Which best determines the productivity of an ecosystem?

Net primary productivity varies among ecosystems and depends on many factors. These include solar energy input, temperature and moisture levels, carbon dioxide levels, nutrient availability, and community interactions (e.g., grazing by herbivores) 2.

What are the two most biologically productive habitats on Earth?

Two of the Most Diverse Ecosystems on Earth

Tropical rain forests on land and coral reefs in marine systems are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth and have become the focus of popular attention.

What types of organisms have the highest productivity?

Plants have the greatest net production efficiencies, which range from 30-85%. The reason that some organisms have such low net production efficiencies is that they are homeotherms, or animals that maintain a constant internal body temperature (mammals and birds).

Which of these ecosystems is one of the most biologically productive of all biomes?

Tropical rainforests have an emergent layer of tall trees over 40 m tall, an overstory of trees up to 30 m tall, a sub-canopy layer of trees and tall shrubs, and a ground layer of herbaceous vegetation. Tropical forests have the highest biodiversity and primary productivity of any of the terrestrial biomes.

Why is the continental shelf the most biologically rich part of the ocean?

Continental shelves only make up about 6% of the ocean’s surface area, but they are biologically one of the richest parts of the ocean; their shallow depth prevents nutrients from sinking out, and their proximity to the coast provides significant nutrient input.

Why are continental margins important?

The continental margins are of great importance for many reasons, not least of which is that they are presently the source of increasing amounts of crude oil and natural gas supplies.

How does a continental margin differ from a deep ocean basin?

Continental margins – these are regions that extend from the coast across shallow shelf regions to the edge of continents where the seafloor descends into deep water. Deep-ocean basins – This includes parts of the oceans where deep water prevails. Deep ocean basins cover the greatest portion of the Earth’s surface.

Why are continental shelves so high in nutrients choose all reasons )?

Which habitat is seasonless and the largest on Earth? Why are continental shelves so high in nutrients (choose all reasons)? Nutrients are continuously replenished by runoff from land. Storms often stir nutrients back into the water column from the shallow bottom.

What are three environments that have exceptionally high biological productivity in the tropical ocean Why are they so productive?

Three environments that have exceptionally high biological productivity in the tropical oceans are equatorial upwellings, coastal upwellings, and coral reefs. – Equatorial Upwelling – Have high productivity due to trade winds driving westerly equatorial currents on either side of the equator.

Which of the following nutrients is most limiting to the productivity of open oceans?

Outside high-nutrient low-chlorophyll areas, productivity in most of the ocean (∼ 75%) is limited by the availability of inorganic nitrogen (Figure 1B), despite very low concentrations of iron and, in some cases, phosphate.

Why does the ocean around Antarctica have a high biological productivity?

Why is cold water more productive? Cold water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warm water. The levels of dissolved oxygen in Antarctic waters are so high that many fish have few or no red blood cells (the blood cells other animals, including humans, use to carry oxygen).

Why are Antarctic waters so productive?

The Southern Ocean and Antarctica have high levels of primary productivity for three months of the year, based on the growth of phytoplankton. These microscopic plants are highly adapted to this unique environment and survive despite the lack of iron – a key nutrient – in these waters.

Which ecosystem is less productive?

Least productive ecosystem is desert and deep lake.

Why does open ocean have low productivity?

In surface waters away from coastlines, generally there is plenty of sun but not enough nutrients. So most of the ocean surface is not very productive. The water is too deep for storms to stir up nutrients from the bottom and there isn’t upwelling.

Oceanic Continental Margins Simplified

23.2 The Continental Margin

Vodcast 9.3: Passive & Active Continental Margins

Ocean Productivity Simplified

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