# what controls how much radiation the sun emits

## How does the sun emit radiation?

The sun gets its energy from the process of nuclear fusion. … This energy eventually makes its way to the outer regions of the sun and is radiated or emitted away in the form of energy, known as electromagnetic radiation. A particle of electromagnetic radiation is known as a photon.

## What controls the intensity of the sun’s radiation on a surface?

The intensity of solar radiation is largely a function of the angle of incidence, the angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the Earth’s surface. If the Sun is positioned directly overhead or 90° from the horizon, the incoming insolation strikes the surface of the Earth at right angles and is most intense.

## What causes the sun to produce energy radiation?

Solar energy is created by nuclear fusion that takes place in the sun. Fusion occurs when protons of hydrogen atoms violently collide in the sun’s core and fuse to create a helium atom. This process, known as a PP (proton-proton) chain reaction, emits an enormous amount of energy.

## What controls how much radiation the sun emits sunspots are not the primary control Question 1 options?

Sunspots are not the primary control. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is approximately 150 million kilometers; at this distance, Earth intercepts a tiny amount of the radiation emitted by the Sun. The law that explains this is known as the Inverse Square Law.

The energy that reaches Earth is measured as solar irradiance (energy per second over a square meter). Given the estimated radiant power of the sun, the intensity of solar energy that reaches the top of Earth’s atmosphere (directly facing the sun) is 1,360 W/m² 39.

## What wavelength does the Sun emit most radiation?

around 500 nanometers
Yellow Light Is the Most Intense Wavelength in Sunlight

The greatest amount of sunlight is emitted at wavelengths around 500 nanometers, so you can easily see why sunlight appears yellow.

Energy goes out in two ways: reflection by clouds, aerosols, or the Earth’s surface; and thermal radiation—heat emitted by the surface and the atmosphere, including clouds. … The global average net radiation must be close to zero over the span of a year or else the average temperature will rise or fall.

## Where are the sun’s rays the most intense?

the equator
In general, the sun’s rays are the most intense at the equator and the least intense at the poles. On an average yearly basis, areas north of the Arctic Circle receive only about 40 percent as much solar radiation as equatorial regions.

## What factors affect the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface?

Latitude, climate, and weather patterns are major factors that affect insolation—the amount of solar radiation received on a given surface area during a specific amount of time. Locations in lower latitudes and in arid climates generally receive higher amounts of insolation than other locations.

## How much energy does Sun release in the form of radiation?

The sun’s luminosity is about 3.8 x 1026 Joules a second. In terms of mass, you can think of the total energy output as about 4,000,000 tons every second.

## How does the Sun produce large amount of energy?

The sun generates energy in its core in a process called nuclear fusion. During nuclear fusion, the sun’s extremely high pressure and hot temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse or combine. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom.

## What is the energy output of the Sun?

The power output or luminosity of the Sun is 3.8 x 1026 W, this is the total amount of energy released from the Sun every second.

## What type of radiation does the Sun primarily emit?

Though the sun emits all of the different kinds of electromagnetic radiation, 99% of its rays are in the form of visible light, ultraviolet rays, and infrared rays (also known as heat). Man-made lamps can also emit UV radiation, and are often used for experimental purposes.

## What gas is mainly responsible for scattering of sun solar radiation?

Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere acts as a greenhouse gas and is a major pollutant. Higher up, in the stratosphere, the ozone layer absorbs solar ultra-violet radiation and affects how much of the Sun’s heat is radiated back into space.

## What gasses make up the Sun?

Instead, the sun is composed of layers made up almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. These gases carry out different functions in each layer, and the sun’s layers are measured by their percentage of the sun’s total radius.

## How does the amount of radiation emitted by Earth differ from that emitted by the sun?

How does the amount of radiation emitted by the earth differ from that emitted by the sun? The earth emits most of its radiation at a longer wavellenghts between about 5 and 25 um, while the sun emits the majority of its radiation at wavelenghts less than 2um.

## How does the amount of heat received by the Earth from the sun able it to support life?

The sun radiates energy in all directions. … The delicate balance between the amount of heat Earth receives from the sun and the heat that Earth radiates back into space makes it possible for the planet to sustain life.

## How does the sun produce electromagnetic waves?

The Sun is made of plasma, which is a gas of bare ions and electrons. The energy released from nuclear fusion heats this plasma, and the moving charges emit electromagnetic waves.

## Does the sun produce gamma rays?

Physicists do not think the sun emits any gamma rays from within. (Nuclear fusions in its core do produce them, but they scatter and downgrade to lower-energy light before leaving the sun.) … And the signal becomes up to 20 times stronger than predicted for gamma rays with the highest frequencies.

## What affects the solar constant?

At any given moment, the amount of solar radiation received at a location on the Earth’s surface depends on the state of the atmosphere, the location’s latitude, and the time of day.

## How does sun angle affect the amount of solar radiation received by a surface?

When the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface near the equator, the incoming solar radiation is more direct (nearly perpendicular or closer to a 90˚ angle). … At higher latitudes, the angle of solar radiation is smaller, causing energy to be spread over a larger area of the surface and cooler temperatures.

## What determines how concentrated the sunlight is that strikes Earth’s surface?

When the sun is nearer the Earth, the Earth’s surface receives a little more solar energy. … The 23.5° tilt in the Earth’s axis of rotation is a more significant factor in determining the amount of sunlight striking the Earth at a particular location.

## Why does the equator get more sun?

Due to the tilt of the Earth, the Equator is closer to the sun so receives more of its energy. The Equator has a smaller surface area so heats up quickly compared to the poles. There is less atmosphere to pass through at the Equator compared to the poles.

## Where is sun directly overhead?

Having the sun directly overhead can happen only between the Cancer and Capricorn tropics. That is, only the places between 23.5° of latitude north and 23.5° of latitude south. On the Cancer tropic (23.5° latitude north) it will happen once every year, on the day of the northern hemisphere solstice (about June 21st).

## Which day direct rays of the sun falls on the equator?

21st March
On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox.

## What affects the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth’s atmosphere?

While the solar radiation incident on the Earth’s atmosphere is relatively constant, the radiation at the Earth’s surface varies widely due to: … local variations in the atmosphere, such as water vapour, clouds, and pollution; latitude of the location; and. the season of the year and the time of day.

## How does radiation from the sun affect Earth’s atmosphere?

Photo taken in May in the Outer Banks, NC. Energy from the Sun is very important to the Earth. The Sun warms our planet, heating the surface, the oceans and the atmosphere. This energy to the atmosphere is one of the primary drivers our weather.

## Which two factors affect the amount of sunlight received by a planet’s surface?

The amount of sunlight received on Earth’s surface is affected by the reflectivity of the surface, the angle of the sun, the output of the sun, and the cyclic variations of Earth’s orbit around the sun.

## What forms of energy are produced by the sun?

All of the energy from the Sun that reaches the Earth arrives as solar radiation, part of a large collection of energy called the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. Solar radiation includes visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared, radio waves, X-rays, and gamma rays.

## How much energy is radiated by sun per second?

The sun releases energy at a mass–energy conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second, which produces the equivalent of 384.6 septillion watts (3.846×1026 W).

## How much power does the sun produce in a day?

So for the six hours in the middle of a sunny day, an area the size of a small backyard swimming pool (48 m2) will receive about 288 kilowatts of energy. That’s nearly 10 times what the average US household uses in an entire day!

## Why does the sun emits more energy than the Earth?

Since the Sun has a greater area and higher temperature, it emits more energy.

## How is energy transferred from the Sun to Earth?

The Sun’s energy reaches Earth through the process of radiation. Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. Ninety-nine percent of the radiant energy from the Sun consists of visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation.

## Sun 101 | National Geographic

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